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An “antioxidant-like” protein to fight free radical damage in the body

A protein found in high levels in some cancer cells can be used for treating diseases caused by oxygen free radicals in the body, a recent study has found.

Oxygen free radicals such as hydrogen peroxides and superoxides, called Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), are found in the cells as byproducts of cellular metabolism. Uncontrolled levels of ROS in the cell can lead to oxidative stress. Diabetes, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease find their roots at the damage caused by oxidative stress in the cells.

Patrick D’Silva’s group at the Indian Institute of Science have found that Magmas, a mitochondrial protein also regulates the level of ROS in cells, apart from its already known function.

Magmas is involved in protein transport in cells, and is found in elevated levels in certain cancer types. There is very little information already available about regulation of ROS in the body, and this paper brings forth a lot of missing links in this research area.

The team found that the levels of Magmas in the cell are dependent on the cellular ROS levels. Elevated levels of Magmas help in lowering the concentration of ROS and vice versa. It not only plays an important role in controlling the production of free radicals, but maintains the ROS homeostasis by efficient scavenging. This protects the cell viability and also increases cellular stress tolerance.

“By maintaining a free-radical balance in cell, this protein prevents stress mediated cellular damage to biomolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. Hence, overproduction of Magmas protein provides unique advantages to the cells against free radical stress”, said Prof D’Silva.

Higher levels of Magmas are typically found in metabolically active tissues, cancer cells and tissues at different developmental stages. In cancer cells, Magmas prevents cell death, and hence helps in the proliferation of cancer cells. Even in non-cancerous cells, Magmas shows controlled levels of ROS and much lesser oxidative stress.

Such molecules that regulate the number of free radicals can be used while designing possible therapies for oxidative stress related disorders. “The inhibitors or stimulators against Magmas can be used as a therapeutic intervention against cancer as well as multiple free-radical induced stress related diseases”, said Prof D’Silva.

Further research is required to elucidate the mechanism of ROS regulation by Magmas and to discover the other proteins involved in the regulatory circuit.

About the authors

Patrick D’Silva is an Associate Professor at the Department of Biochemistry at the Indian Institute of Science. S Srivastava, D Sinha, PP Saha and H Marthala work in his lab.

Phone: 080 22932821; email: patrick@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

Website: http://biochem.iisc.ernet.in/pdsilva.php

 

The paper appeared in the journal Cell Death and Disease on 28th August 2014.

Link: http://www.nature.com/cddis/journal/v5/n8/full/cddis2014355a.html