The Amazon river is the largest river system in the world, discharging huge volumes of fresh water into the ocean. Scientists from the Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic sciences have explored what would be the effect of the reduction in the Amazon river’s runoff into the ocean. The scientists demonstrate the wide ranging climatic changes that can occur if the river discharges lesser water into the Atlantic ocean.
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Everyone Indian eagerly waits for the arrival of the monsoon rains. Some to just get relief from the sweltering heat while others, like farmers are dependent on the monsoon for their crops. Even though the arrival of the monsoon in Kerala is predicted accurately every year, the monsoon predictions for the other parts of the country have not been dependable. Now, scientists from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore have devised a new mechanism to predict the arrival of the monsoon in central India up to one month in advance.
A recent collaborative study between the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, has employed machine-learning techniques to reveal newpredictors for the Indian Monsoon, making monsoon predictions more reliable. The team consisted of Ms. Moumita Saha and Prof. Pabitra Mitra from the Department of Computer Science, IIT–Kharagpur; and Prof. Ravi S. Nanjundiah from the Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences as well as Divecha Centre for Climate Change, IISc. Using global climate data from 1948-2000 and machine learning algorithms, the team derived a set of reliable predictors for monsoon rainfall of the sub-continent.
Bengaluru, apart from all its glory, is also loved for its pleasant weather and surprise light showers. But what makes up the raindrops in those beautiful showers? Are these raindrops formed when fresh river water evaporates and become clouds? Do salt water bodies like seas and oceans influence the constituents of the raindrops that fall in Bengaluru? A team from the Centre for Earth Sciences (CEaS) and Divecha Centre for Climate Change at the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru is exploring this relationship between rain and the role of ocean in driving it. Prof. Prosenjit Ghosh, a member of the study team and a Professor at the Centre for Earth Sciences, calls this research “the journey of moisture from ocean to the land".
Aerosols are extremely small solid or liquid particles that remain suspended in air. Examples of such aerosols include dust, smoke and deodorant sprays. Apart from causing local air pollution, these particles reflect and absorb radiation from the sun and hence affect both local and global climate. A recent study published in the International Journal of Climatology has investigated how soot aerosols accumulating in other parts of Asia influence the Indian summer monsoon.